We will welcome you on Thursday afternoon and you can expect to depart on Sunday morning.
November 9th-12th, 2023
(9. – 12. 11. 2023)
The game takes place at the state castle Lipnice nad Sázavou. It is a castle, not a Castle Hotel. It is also a National Cultural Monument and there is almost no furniture inside. Since it is a protected monument, we have to treat it accordingly. We are only allowed to have our game at this unique location thanks to the benevolence of the caretaker of the castle and it is a greatly appreciated privilege. We therefore kindly ask you to treat the premises with utmost care.
The castle Lipnice nad Sázavou does not feature barrier-free access unfortunately and the players would walk approximately 10km per day on the castle’s premises. Therefore, a certain level of physical capability is necessary.
The game is accessible to pregnant women but please carefully consider your physical state if you are in 36th or later week of pregnancy or if your doctors have warned you of any unusual risks.
Only players over 18 years of age can participate.
The game is set in the middle ages and its key themes include religion, inquisition, interrogation and torture. There will be no increased risk of physical or psychological harm, there are clear game mechanics for these situations and you can stop any scene you are not comfortable with. However, if you don’t feel comfortable with playing with the themes of faith, religion and connected topics, this game is not for you.
I will come to Prague by Airplane
I will come to Vienna by Airplane
Unfortunately, no direct connection is operating between Vienna and Jihlava. You can get to Brno by either train (operated by Student Agency or ČD/ÖBB) or bus (FlixBus or Student Agency) and consequently to Jihlava by bus operated by either FlixBus or Student Agency or train (operated by ČD)
I will come to Brno
There is a direct bus connection between Brno and Jihlava operated by either FlixBus or Student Agency. There is also a direct train connection (operated by ČD). We will be glad to pick you up in Jihlava at the bus stop or train stop.
I will come by car
If you use your own car, you can get to the outer court of the castle, parking is possible either in front of the gate or under the castle.
If there is sufficient demand, we can also organize a direct bus to the castle from Prague.
We are also open to picking you up at Praha airport or Brno especially if there will be a larger group of players coming at the same time. Please, don’t hesitate to contact us and we will address your case operatively based on our availability.
WHEN TO SIGN UP AND PAY?
Sign up as soon as possible! Not only will you have wider selection of characters still available, but also a discount on a registration fee if you register and pay before the end of May (see Pricing).
Design document you can download in PDF or read it online
DETAILS OF DESIGN DOCUMENT
TIME SCHEDULE OF THE GAME
Arrival of players by 2PM
2PM – 6PM Costume fitting
6PM dinner (soup, bread)
7PM – 10PM Various workshops
8AM – 9AM breakfast
9AM workshops and introduction to the world and characters
1PM – 2PM pre-game scenes
2PM – 3PM break and preparation for the start of the game
3PM ritual passage into the game
3PM – approx. midnight – game
After midnight – lights-out (but we stay in the roles)
9AM – 10AM breakfast
10AM – approx. 8PM – game
Approx. 8PM – ritual exit from the game
8PM – Debriefing, dinner and party!
There will be a pub managed by the organizers where you can buy alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Please bring CZK cash, we do not accept credit cards for technical reasons.
9AM breakfast, clean-up and departure
If you choose the BASIC price option, you will sleep in the castle. Accommodations are more like „camping in the building“ than anything else. The „dormitory“ is located on the second floor of the castle, where you will sleep on sleeping pads (Mirelon). The pads are 3 cm thick and measure 50 x 200 cm. Please bring all other necessary equipment with you, such as sleeping bags, blankets, pillows, and towels. We also recommend bringing earplugs.
There are no showers at the castle, only a flushing toilet and cold running water on the ground floor.
If you choose the LUXURY or ULTRA LUXURY options, you will sleep at a local hotel or guesthouse. Accommodations will include one-bed or multiple-bed rooms with a toilet and shower. A minibus service will be provided to transport you between your hotel and the game location every morning and evening at designated times. The hotel is also within walking distance, taking approximately 7 minutes to reach.
Restrooms with two flushing toilets and a wash-basin with cold water taps are available for ladies and gentlemen on the ground floor of the castle. We will provide toilet paper, soap, disinfectant, and paper towels. Additionally, there is one mirror in the hall between the restrooms.
WHAT TO BRING
In addition to the items mentioned above, please remember to pack enough clothing, personal hygiene products, any necessary items for personal needs, CZK cash, a European power adapter (if needed), chargers, medication, a sleeping bag, and a blanket if you have chosen the BASIC package. We also recommend bringing two pairs of non-disturbing, warm shoes.
There is nowhere to warm up inside the castle. The only room with heating is dedicated for sleeping. We will try to warm up the castle with gas heaters but it is a huge building and we will not get to the usual room temperature (23°C). The average temperature inside is 12-13°C and the average temperature outside is 5-8°C.
You will get wool costumes from us but the responsibility for warm clothing under your costumes is up to you!
You should take several layers of warm clothing with you – functional underwear, two sweaters, a down vest, a scarf, a lower back warming belt, two pairs of warm socks, leather gloves or knitted mitten, players of female characters can also have a tight cap under veils. You can trust us that you will appreciate having these extra layers. Your costumes will allow for these extra layers. If you are cold, first add an extra layer under your costume and if it is still not enough, only then come for an extra layer of costume.
FULL BOARD FROM THURSDAY DINNER TO SUNDAY BREAKFAST IS INCLUDED IN ALL PRICE PACKAGES
We can prepare the following special diets – vegetarian, gluten free, various food allergies and milk intolerance. We cannot cover vegan and other diets.
The cuisine will be inspired by authentic recipes from the Middle Ages. The food will be cooked over an open fire. For breakfast, you can expect porridge or eggs; for lunch, a thick soup with bread; and for dinner, a two-course meal. There will be bread with lard or fresh cheese available between meals.
You can drink water or warm fruit tea all day, and there will be coffee upon request.
You can also visit a pub managed by organizers during the game, where you can buy mulled wine, hot juice, and non-alcoholic beer with CZK cash. After the game alcoholic beverages will also be available.
Our aim is to provide an authentic experience of medieval life, which is supported by the beautiful environment of the castle, medieval cuisine, music, and most of all, the costumes. Despite that, we have decided to allow glasses and modern shoes. However, please take leather or faux leather shoes, ideally two pairs. Please don’t take trainers. Military boots, hiking boots, other types of leather boots, modern winter shoes or snow boots in black or brown color are acceptable.
Players of male characters should take unicolored cotton tracksuit trousers and some functional or merino underwear. If your character has a short surcoat, the trousers can be covered with leg wraps.
The esthetic ideals of medieval people are different from modern esthetic ideals, and our costumes reflect this. The cuts are wider, obscuring the figure, while the clothing is more colorful with more daring color combinations than nowadays. We thank you for respecting this concept.
We will provide bags and purses.
If your character is female, please don’t use too much makeup and try to use less expressive styles.
Most characters will receive headgear – female characters will receive headdresses and veils, while male characters will receive coifs, capes, and hoods. This is in line with medieval tastes.
If you sew or knit, please bring the necessary equipment with you. We will provide needles, threads, spare pieces of fabric, skeins, and lucets. You can sew and embroider something or knit a string, and you can keep the product as a souvenir.
WEAPONS AND ARMOR
We only use soft LARP weapons (BOFRY), and if your character is supposed to be armed, we will provide the weapons.
We do not allow any metal weapons in our games, including sharp weapons.
Some characters will have light armor, which we will provide. However, please note that our game is not focused on fighting, so don’t expect full armor. You will receive gambeson, some chainmail elements, and a helmet.
The game is completely non-smoking. However, we understand that this may be challenging for some of our players. There will be one designated smoking area, the STABLES, where players can take a small break from the game to smoke. Smoking is only allowed in the STABLES before, during, and after the game.
CHILL OUT ZONE
Since the game can be emotionally challenging, the entire top floor of the castle will be designated for relaxation, taking a break from the roles, and off-game conversations. Please do not discuss game secrets or plots when out of character!
We are aware that there can be many differences between larp cultures and traditions in Europe. In the following tabs we will try to describe the playing style of our game to bring everyone on the same page; however, we are possibly not aware of all the problems which may arise. Please, if you have any questions or objections, don’t hesitate to ask us either on our email: email@example.com or our FB page.
The game is of a “come and play” sort and only light preparation is expected of the players. You will get a full character sheet and you will not be asked to participate in writing it; however, we will ask you to read it thoroughly, think about your interpretation, and consult with the organisers about any issues that might arise.
We will also not expect you to study detailed historical information on your own; we will supply you with our own comprehensive materials, summarizing what you need to know and what might be useful. There will also be pre-game workshops covering all the necessary information.
Although The Good People of Languedoc is a scripted game many characters have a lot of freedom in key decisions. There are no right or wrong decisions but the outcome of the game is a result of each individual decision made by you (the players) and can therefore be influenced a lot. You will enjoy a certain level of freedom to do what you wish, but ultimately you have a lot of issues to address and many relationships to maintain or develop. You will be living a life of a character in medieval Languedoc.
Each of the characters has a somewhat different game. The following figure will give you a rough idea of the game’s structure. Some of the characters will enjoy more romantic encounters, some less of them or even none at all. The game design is a balance act between certain elements. More gaming means less immersion, more script means less sandbox, etc.:
Religion plays a crucial role in Good People of Languedoc as the main focus of the game is a clash between Catholicism and the Catharist heresy. You (the player) can therefore not avoid religious topics completely, but certain characters (e.g. priests, nuns, Templar knights) will deal more with such topics than the others. All of you will experience short in-game masses that will be include singing of liturgical texts and other religious songs in latin. If your character is a priest, you can even lead these masses (Don’t worry, you will get all the materials necessary in advance as well as a hand written missal at your disposal – game manual for the mass in English with a few texts in latin).
Some of you might also experience heretical religious meetings. Such meetings are much less structured and will always be improvised. It’s structure is entirely up to the players.
totality and oppression
power and powerlessness
Inquisition and interrogation
humiliating pre-marital rituals
inequality between men and women
alcoholism and other cases of substance abuse
sexual violence (direct participants in sexual violence will be tagged)
Investigation of heresy is a very important topic of the game and with it interrogation by the inquisition. This will be a re-enacted in a dedicated torture chamber in the game. This interrogation is driven by mechanics designed to protect you from both physical and psychological harm.
Inspired by the medieval weapons and fighting styles, we use certain forms of fighting and appropriate weapons. Still, the aim is not to provide you a re-enactor’s fighting experience. The weapons used are not made of metal, they are soft foam with solid core (BOFRY type). These are mostly one-handed swords, with a few exceptions, and not all of you will get them. The sword is a sign of privilege and lower social strata are armed with knives, daggers or similar weapons at best. Additionally only male characters are armed.
The sword-fights will be theatrical and inspired by the medieval swordplay. The required skill level is minimal and we will teach you everything you need during a dedicated pre-game workshop.
Your game experience will be also enhanced by immersive live music. We will focus on liturgical singing in one of the pre-game workshops. If you are a musician and you can play an instrument that is close to a medieval instrument, please let us know. We will be happy to discuss if it is appropriate to bring it into our game.
There are roles in the game that have certain specifics you should take into consideration when making your selection.
Executioner/Torturer – You must be fine with causing in-game distress to other players to enhance their dramatic experience. You must also be fine with physical contact with other players when subjecting them to torture
Inquisitor – You must be willing to interrogate other players using rougher techniques. Inevitably, your story is closely linked to the power structures of the Catholic Church and is strongly religious.
Musicians/performers – You will entertain other players (by dancing, singing, playing instruments, story-telling – whichever suits you best)
Many of the characters either are historical figures or are inspired by one. Their stories are often squeezed their stories into a shorter time period and shifted to the same time and place. Sometimes we have renamed them to avoid confusion in the game when their names were the same. However, you will most likely change their history by making different choices and that is perfectly fine.
We are very dedicated to your safety and comfort. There will be a team of organisers in the game. At any time before, during or after the game, you can come to any member of our team if you need anything concerning your character or story (you don’t know how to proceed, etc.)
All our games contain mechanics to protect your physical and psychological safety. We provide an explanation of game mechanics and we practice them during pre-game workshops.
We are doing our best to protect you from any physical or psychological harm. If you don’t feel well (e.g. you get injured, you feel anxious, etc.) before, during or after the game, we are ready to provide help and get you to specialist if necessary.
The game is not transparent and you might not have some information other players do. You will also have one or more secrets that noone besides you knows. The purpose of the secret is to be revealed at certain time and to be a surprise for both you and your character. We therefore ask you to debate your gaming preferences and set intimacy levels and physical boundaries with your close in-game partners.
but do not tell them any of the secrets of or any other „spoilers“ about your character. Please do not send them your character sheets or tell them what your character thinks about theirs and what you’re planning to do about it.
If you are unhappy about something in the game, want to make a major decision, which might influence your co-players, or want to tweak something in your in-game relationships, please go talk to the organisers; we know the game really well and will work out a way to make you and your co-players happy. However, please do not go to have an off-game chat about it with another player.
We are aware that this is unusual in many larping cultures, but we believe that the lack of transparency in our game is justified and that we have ways to make it work. Please trust us in this one.
A number of safety mechanics is emplyed in the game. Those mechanics serve to either communicate your discomfort during certain scenes to adjust their intensity or even stop the scene or the game entirely:
Stopping the scene
Red STOP is a hard stop of the game. When you use Red STOP, the entire game will stop until the issue is resolved. Red STOP should be used when the scene you are in is either too distressful for you as a player or when someone has been injured. After the situation has been resolved, the game will continue.
I must go to confession is a mechanic allowing you to leave the scene you are uncomfortable with for various reasons. This mechanic does not stop the game for other players and only ends the current scene you are in at the moment. I must go to confession should be used when you are uncomfortable with where the scene is going or when you don’t know how to proceed (and need to seek organisers for advice). We are always at your disposal when such situations occur and will be glad to help you with any problems.
Adjusting the scene intensity
The following mechanics can be used when you want to adjust the game intensity as a player. These mechanics are designed to drive the interrogation between gentle and more naturalistic:
Virgin Mary, stand by me! is a mechanic that does not stop the game nor the ongoing scene. It should be used when you feel like the current scene is discomfortable to you and the other participants should be less aggresive/loud/intense.
God is by my side! is a mechanic that lets other participants of the scene (e.g. inquisitor, torturer) that you would enjoy more pressure as a player and they may use more aggresive methods of psychological pressure, shout more, etc.
Shame on the false prophets! is a mechanic that lets ither participants of the scene know that you are okay with more physical discomfort and they may use more torture methods for example.
It is possible that your character is facing serious threats and your friends want to help protect you (e.g. from interrogation). If you as a player want to experience the scene and you don’t want to be saved by other characters, you can tell the other players:
I will face my fate alone! It is a mechanic that lets other players (e.g. your friends) know that you don’t want their help and they will leave you to your fate.
We believe that a certain degree of physical experience is important for the overall game experience. This might be uncomfortable for some of you. Nevertheless, we want to give you reasonably realistic experience of medieval life and we believe that a few minutes of physical or psychological discomfort might enhance your game experience. The main source of discomfort during the game will be the interrogation by either the inquisition or other parties. Not everyone will be interrogated. Nobility, clergy and pregnant (in-game) women will most probably not be interrogated. The other characters must assume that there is a possibility that they might be interrogated in the torture chamber.
The level of both physical and psychological discomfort in the game and in any interrogation is entirely up to each player.
You van expect to experience following forms of physical aggression:
- A touch on your shoulder by the executioner to hold you in place
- A few moments of kneeling on the ground
- Theater slap
- Whipping of a bench next to you (to imitate flogging)
If you are okay with more discomfort, you can expect:
- Gentle immobilization (your hand will be tied loosely with a soft rope)
- Gentle flogging (with a soft rope over all layers of clothing)
- Tying your hands loosely behind your back and slowly pulling your arms up to the ceiling (to immitate Strappado)
ALL THESE DEGREES ARE PURELY VOLUNTARY AND THERE ARE CLEARLY DEFINED MECHANISMS TO FACILITATE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE INTERROGATOR AND THE INTERROGATED.
There are several supporting mechanisms connected to the torture chamber:
If you believe that your character is really tough, your character will not tell anything they don’t want to. At least not on the first try. When the inquisitor applies a higher degree of torture, you should reveal a small secret even if your character is really tough. Don’t make the inquisitor depressed that no one will say a thing. The inquisitor can use up to 4 degrees of torture and every character that is interrogated will eventually share some secrets. It is an integral part of the game. Don’t try to keep your secrets for yourself the whole game.
You can of course use RED STOP or I must go to confession (to leave the scene). You can also use off-game whispering with the executioner, you can let him know if you can take more discomfort if you need to relax the pressure. There afoerementioned three in-game sentences (Virgin Mary, stand by me!; God is by my side!; Shame on the false prophets!) can be used in communication with the executioner and the inquisitor.
Outside of the torture chamber, any in-game violence is always only theatrical – there should be absolutely minimal physical contact between the players – the maximum allowed is clenching front loose side of the clothes (where a lapel would be if you had a coat or a jacket) and gentle shaking.
We leave the level of intimacy up to the players, we only give the maximum allowed level. The absolute maximum level of intimacy allowed in-game includes:
- a gentle hug
- a kiss on a cheek
- holding hands in public
Please leave other intimacies to your private moments before and after the game. Also if you have someone close to you participating in the game. This limitation is there to ensure general comfort of players.
Any in-game sexual intercourse will be played by taking off your headdress and a hugging briefly.
We would like to stress that rape or any other type of forced intercourse is not one of the topics of the game and any (in-game) forced sexual intercourse must be consulted with the organizers in advance.
Game mechanics connected to punishment
A typical punishment that might appear in the game is a fine, penance or payment of damages
A game mechanic for branding will be introduced in pre-game workshops (it is absolutely safe, painless and you can wash it off effortlessly after the game)
Pillory will be used as one of the punishments (approximately 15 minutes, not a real pillory, just mock binding to a tree trunk and in-game public shaming)
Prison (15 minutes in the dungeon with windows)
There will be no hanging, burning at stake will not happen before Saturday evening (there will be no actual fire involved, your safety will not be threatened)
The act of registration to this game also constitutes a consent of the player that they will under all circumstances behave in a manner that does not put their or anyone else’s life, health or property at risk. Alcohol consumption is allowed during the game but the players consent that they will drink responsibly. Consumption of other psychotropic drugs is strictly forbidden.
The players declare that they will treat the premises and equipment of the state castle Lipnice with utmost care knowing that the castle is a National Cultural Treasure. The players will not damage in any way the building itself or any of the property within it, they will not cut into plastering, damage floors and they will immediately notify the organizers in case of spillage.
The players will also treat with utmost care any items and costumes provided to them by the organizers.
The players will be respectful to other players. The players will not disrupt the game with their behaviour (by talking about topics not related to the game and the setting). If they feel the need to step out of the role, they will do so strictly in premises dedicated to such purpose.
Our games are strictly non-smoking. Smoking players will respect this and they will only smoke in a designated smoking area.
The set-up of our games does not create situations where the lives of players would be in danger. However, accidents can happen even under the least expected circumstances and we are prepared for such situations. During our dramatical LARPs, a trained health professional is always present and we are ready to call an ambulance in case of an emergency.
The team of authors of the game acknowledges that in their games, various facts from religious and political history of certain nations are used. Multiple characters are written with world-views that make it clear that they see things in black and white, their simplified point of view is meant to reflect the historical reality of the people living in the given place at the time of our game. We intend to let you experience thinking and world-view of people from history.
For that reason, even attitude to gender topics reflects the historical reality. The historical reality was strongly prejudiced in terms of gender, religion and nationality. That does not mean that we are expressing our personal opinions to the rights of minorities by creating a game from such period. The aim is to create a thrilling and entertaining game which is as close to historical reality as is possible for us.
That being said, some of historical facts might be described in a way that does not fully correspond to actual findings of historians. We are presenting dramatic historical games, not documentaries. Conflicts and opposing views are accentuated and sometimes even exaggerated, one-sided and unfair to some religious groups or nationalities. We would like to clarify that this is done only to make the game more dramatic. A good story needs a drama and that is created by the catharsis of conflicts and strife. There is no value statement attached from our side to any of the situations occurring during the game. We value all religions, sexes and nationalities equally. If you feel offended by any event in the game, please contact the organizers immediately to help us resolve the situation.
Unless clearly stated otherwise, all characters in the game have a set sex and they are either male or female. This is an integral part of the game design and we cannot change the characters to suit the needs of individual players. Since our historical games focus on a certain level of historical authenticity, unless clearly stated otherwise, we do not have crossgender characters.
At the same time, we welcome without reservation all players regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. The character selection process is based on a dialogue between the players and the organizers and we are very forthcoming. In some of our games, you can play a character without a defined sex or in other cases, we have male or female option of the same character. This is mentioned in the short character bios for each game.
The game has some themes and motifs that may be uncomfortable for some. Conversely, some will not appear in the game (or are restricted to certain roles) and therefore we will require that players do not bring them into the game.
The game design includes:
- Religious oppression
- Inequality between men and women
Some characters might also encounter:
- Violence (Inquisition)
The game design does NOT include:
The game takes place in the year of our Lord 1262, in a small town located in a valley in the mountains in what we would call southern France nowadays. Languedoc used to be a part of the Kingdom of Aragon but over the course of two crusades, King of France took control of the region. The justification of the conquest was that the local nobility did not persecute the Cathars – heretics in the eyes of the Church. The religious leaders of the Cathars were called simply the Good People. The Church started mockingly calling them parfait or perfecti – perfects. The people of Languedoc started using Parfait without its mocking undertone. At the time of our game, there are no Parfait left. The last one of them was burned at stake under Monsegur 18 years ago, after the last big battle of the war.
No one likes to remember the war times, a lot of looting and pillaging took place. Many people still remember the conflict. Majority of local nobles were either killed in the battles of the war or had to flee the land and their manors were taken by the conquerors – members of the French families of the north perceived as invaders by the locals.
The Dominicans operate in the region protected by the new nobility – the pope endowed them with the right to preside over courts spiritual – the Inquisition. Their goal is to hunt down the heretics and either bring them back to the right faith or to purge them from the face of the earth. The bishop of Narbonne was given governance over the region by the King of France and therefore held both secular and religious powers over the region. The representatives of the Church are intangible for both the locals and the French.
The French bring new habits and traditions as well as their law. The French law is much less progressive in many ways than the local law. Men and women were almost equal in the South and there was also virtual freedom of religious beliefs. It was common for the people in the South to be able to read, allowing them to read the Bible and interpret its texts. However, according to the Catholic Church, people should neither own the Bible nor read it. Interpreting it is absolutely out of the question – that is the domain of the priests. The spirit of ancient Rome survived in many habits in Languedoc. Conversely, the French nobility is used to a very patriarchal and strictly Catholic society.
A person of 21st century would perceive the culture of Languedoc in 13th century as liberal, relaxed and tolerant, maybe a bit indulgent and libertine at least compared to the culture of the French nobles that despise local habits and we would see their opinions as uptight, chauvinist and exceedingly puritan.
According to the old laws of Languedoc, there was no issue in Lady Eleanor inheriting the Quillan manor from her late husband Raimund of Quillan. However, according to the laws of French invaders, she has to pass the inheritance to an adult man, otherwise her manor will have to be surrendered to the Crown. Eleanor plans to give the manor to her son as soon as he gets married. The wedding is about to take place when our game begins.
Don’t worry, you really don’t need much historical knowledge. This information is available as material for those who really enjoy history and want to know into more detail.
You can find various items and presents connected to the game in our eshop at larp-sword.com.
T-shirts, commemorative coins, leather folder for documents and others. T-shirts are embroided. You can choose colours other than black, if you let us know in advance through our email, about your size and prefered colour, we will have it made for you (the price for all T-shirts is the same, regardless of size and colour).
We are slowly expanding the offered goods, you can view all available options in our e-shop and some of the items will be alsoavailable for purchase on site before the game starts and after it has ended. However it is possible that we run out of stock.
The following leather folio with the symbol of Languedoc with a notebook inside could be even useful during the game. You can use it for your notebook or diary as well as in the game to store your game documents.
There are two sizes available – A6 for 24 EUR and A5 for 32 EUR.
REGISTRATION AND CASTING
The registration is open until the full capacity of the game is reached, i.e. until all 65 players are assigned a character. The prospective players are enrolled based on the time of their registration. Those who registered after the capacity was fulfilled, will be placed on the waiting list and in case of any vacancies, the registered prospective players on the waiting list will be given a first choice.
The characters are assigned to the players by the organizers based on their preferences indicated in the registration form. Each player receives a choice of 4 characters which they then send back ordered in sequence of their preference. The final casting is performed by the organizers taking into consideration all the above.
We will play on 9.-12. November 2023
You can find more information during January here or on the FB page https://www.facebook.com/GoodPeopleofLanguedoc